Reading Scripture to Understand God's Ways
In Rm 9-11 Paul moves from grief to perception and hope to praise through scripture. He develops key points of Rm 1-8: "Righteousness": both God's righteousness in faithfully being true to his promises and the way he draws humans into a righteous standing with him through Jesus. "Faith": both God's faithfulness embodied in Jesus' life, crucifixion, and resurrection and our faith/trust in what Jesus has done.
But Paul is painfully aware that many of his fellow Jews do not trust that God was at work in Jesus. Rather Torah/Law is God's final revelation defining an ethnic people marked by circumcision, purity laws, temple, and Torah. The Messiah must fit and confirm these.
Paul had agreed but was confronted by Jesus. He looks back across scripture observing how God repeatedly chose a path for his faithfulness that surprised people: Isaac, Jacob, Israel in slavery, rebellious Israel after the golden calf. These show God's surprising ways as he inte