At the end of a year which has seen Britain vote for Brexit, the rise of political parties claiming patriotism in other European countries and a sense of national pride being invoked by politicians in Russia and China - Free Thinking hears from some of the key thinkers exploring these current debates.
Our week long focus begins in France where Philip Dodd talks to the public intellectual, Alain Finkielkraut and the novelist and film-maker Karim Miské.
Alain Finkielkraut is a member of the Académie française, a council of 40 greats elected for life. In France his books are best-sellers but his views about integration and French identity have led to clashes. Finkielkraut's father survived deportation to Auschwitz. In his own career he has taught at universities in USA and France and his books have explored topics including French colonialism, Jewish identity, the internet and the decline of French culture.
Karim Miské is the author of the award winning novel, Arab Jazz, and of